Methodology employed by anti-UC groups

Since 1966 onward, a great many incidents occurred in which the followers of the Unification Church (UC) were forcibly deprogrammed through their abduction and confinement.

People involved in the deprogramming activities included some Christian ministers, who insisted they were solicited by parents to talk to their children, and never involved in the abduction nor confinement.

However, Pastor Mamoru Takazawa of the Kobe Makoto Church, appearing in the Kobe District Court on a case generally termed "Return my Youth" trials as a plaintiff's witness (Case No.1732 of 1992), testified that (1)he had approached the UC followers' relatives in an effort to persuading them to carry out abduction and confinement of their children; (2)himself was deeply involved in plotting and executing the abductions; (3)he directed the parents through close communications; (4)he pressed the UC members to talk to him by wielding a deadly weapon.

Based on Pastor Takazawa's testimonies, let us reveal the methodology employed by the anti-UC individuals.

1. Personal history of Pastor Takazawa

Born in 1942 in Niigata Prefecture, Takazawa was baptized in 1965 and was enrolled into the Kobe Bible School in 1972, subsequently ordained to become a minister in 1979. Since 1981, he has worked at the Kobe Makoto Church (cf.1).

He said that he deprogrammed a UC follower as early as in 1972 when he was pioneering as a theological seminarian (cf.2). The conversion was done through voluntary dialogue and without a confinement (cf.3). He continued the deprogramming efforts even after his assignment to the Kobe Makoto Church (cf.4). He began to employ forcible methods including confinement for the deprogramming since about 10 years before (cf.5).

Until 1996, he claimed, he had converted around 200 UC followers (cf.6) with some 20 cases aborted (cf.7). Among the converted, about 60-70% became Christians (cf.8) and, as he put it, almost half of his congregation of 130 members were the ex-UC followers (cf.9).

Incidentally, in his subsequent remark in 2009, Takazawa asserted to have deprogrammed as many as 800 individuals until then.

2. Approach to UC-followers' parents

1) Responses to the UC-members' parents seeking for advices

Testifying on his responses to the UC-members' parents who had sought for his counseling, Takazawa said the following:-

He would first assert that the Unification Church was 'the social evil' and share a notion that their children had been 'mind-controlled'(cf.10).

In that regard, because many cases involved 'parent-child problems', he drew their attention to psychological aspects of how their children came to attend the Unification Church (cf.11). Then, he would convince the parents that there is no alternative deprogramming method to confining their children in a fixed location (cf.12).

Suppose you, as a parent, are convinced that your child participates a church slated to be 'the social evil' as a result of 'the mind control method', who would not be worried about their lot? Moreover, when you are advised that the situation was caused not by the child's faults but by 'a parents-child problem', you would feel responsible. In this way, the parents were manipulated, out of their parental affection, to carry out such vicious acts as the kidnapping and confinement.

Furthermore, as a reason of aborted deprogramming cases, Takazawa referred to the UC followers' parents releasing their children out of the detention. He even blamed his inadequate orientation that kept rapport between the parents and their children as a reason of such failures by the hands of the parents (cf.13).

He elaborated that 'the orientation' could not adequately enlighten the parents about the horrors of the Unification Church (cf.14). That is to say, the parents should have been awaken so much so that they would never release their children until they are converted. Through such education, the parents would get committed, without other pressure, not to release their children before their conversion (cf.15).

Takazawa even agitated the parents for abduction and confinement by saying, "You (the parents) must risk your lives in order to rescue your children, as they take their faith deadly seriously!"(cf.16) As a consequence, the parents become so committed as to quitting their jobs (cf.17) or admitting their aging elders to elderly homes(cf.18) so that they can devote themselves in the action.

To what extent the parents were aroused by his approaches? According to Takazawa's testimonies, for instance, a plaintiff's mother kept a kitchen knife below her belt when she spoke to her daughter under detention in an apartment, ready to kill herself and the daughter in case the daughter would attempt her second escape, because, for the mother, it would mean to let loose a criminal into the society(cf.19).

This mother had no doubt about her daughter being "a criminal". How did she come to have such a notion? Takazawa did not hesitate to describe the Unification Church as "Nothing but a wicked criminal organization pretending to be a Christian church!"(cf.20) or "That awfully sinful group which cannot be categorized in terms of faith (cf.21)."

When challenged whether he "knows any criminal acts that were actually judged guilty?", Takazawa could not cite any concrete case. He defended himself by saying, "I am not in the (legal) profession" or "(The UC) has committed more internal sins than external crimes" (cf.22). "Isn't it an exaggeration to assert (the UC) as the criminal association", he countered defiantly, "I don't think it is an exaggeration!"(cf.22)

Accordingly, his assertion of the Unification Church as "the criminal association" was not based on any objective facts but an outpouring of his hostile sentiments towards the church. The parents were influenced by his hostile emotions and believed the Unification Church as "the criminal association".

2) Waiting for their turns

The UC followers' parents, desperate to have their children converted away from the UC, had to wait for their turns. Takazawa refused to testify on the number of parents on the waiting list, which is presumed to be really big (cf.25).

He used meetings right after the Sunday Services in order to educate the parents on the waiting list. There, some parents who could convert their children are assembled to talk to the waiting parents (cf.26). Occasionally, Pastor Takazawa would attend the meetings.

With regards to arranging the order of abduction and confinement on behalf of the parents in waiting, Takazawa testified, it would be arranged through consultation with "various families" and people like Atsuyoshi Ojima (a follower of the Aoyama Luthern Church and one of his collaborators) as well as in consideration of individual circumstances (cf.28).

It is not apparent from this testimony whether "various families" included not only the waiting families but those families who could have converted children. But, judging from the educational system in which the successful parents advised the waiting parents, it is reasonable to assume that the former group of parents was involved.

In determining the order of actions, a timing of the Marriage Blessing Ceremony seems not to be taken as a priority factor. Rather, a priority is given to the UC members who received the blessing and about to register their marriage and start their family lives, as a result of comprehensive assessments of the circumstances including the possible childbirth to 'the brain-washed' people(cf.29).

Furthermore, even if parents plead for the deprogramming before their children would take part in the Marriage Blessing, Takazawa testified, he would not hastily comply with their requests (cf.30). In the end, it is not the parents but Takazawa that has the final say on when to execute the abduction and confinement.

A married couple should have a liberty on when to begin a family and bear their children. Defiantly challenging such natural human rights, Takazawa would make arrogant judgments that the UC members are 'brain-washed' and would dare to break up the marital union by kidnapping and confining one of the pair. How wicked and unlawful!

He stated that the waiting periods might vary depending on individuals (cf.31), with some parents waiting for several years because they were unable to contact their children (cf.32).

3. Preparing abduction and confinement

When their turn has arrived, the parents would enter into close and careful discussions with Takazawa concerning the date of abduction, a place and methods of confinement (cf.33).

1) Preparing a site of confinement

Asked in the direct examination about what to prepare for the deprogramming activities, Takazawa replied that there was nothing particular to prepare at his end. He claimed that he would only pay visits to the pre-arranged venue where he talks about the Bible and the dogmas of the Unification Church (cf.34). Also questioned about who procures the place of confinement, he replied that it was the parents (cf.35).

But in the cross-examination, he testified that in some cases the sites of confinement were arranged (cf.36) or guaranteed (cf.37) by him, showing the obvious discrepancies from what he had stated in the direct examination, in which he apparently tried to deny his involvement in the abduction and confinement.

2) Guidance on abduction and confinement

Pastor Takazawa advised to assemble many number of relatives as the collaborators in the abduction and confinement (cf.38). He said that, in order to avoid tragic incidents such as the one involving Keiji Okamoto, their cooperation is indispensable.

In the Okamoto incident, in February 1994 a UC follower Okamoto, in an escape attempt from the confinement site on the 6th floor of an apartment, he fell off to his near fatal injury. Takazawa's remark indicates that they needed many relatives to prevent the escape and carry on the confinement.

He also advised "never to communicate with other UC members" (cf.39). In order to prevent the UC-members from retaking the confined people, he would refer to past lessons from the failed attempts (cf.40). To prevent the UC members from retaking their members means to reinforce the confinement of the abducted followers.

Questioned about his advices to the parents like "Never to let the member out of the vehicle!" or "Don't open the car's window!", Takazawa stated that he generally would not need to instruct them, as the parents were well informed(cf.41). He admitted a failed case in which a UC follower escaped from a toilet at a highway service area (cf.42). As he mentioned about these experiences, the parents became already rehearsed with many eventualities.

Asked whether he advised the parents to place a UC member at the center of the rear seat to be flanked by the relatives at both sides lest the member can escape, Takazawa said, "The parents are well aware of it" (cf.43).

Takazawa testified that, whenever a UC member is taken by car, he would always prepare a portable toilet inside the vehicle (cf.44). Such a behavior demonstrates their very firm motivation to detain and not to let the member out of the vehicle.

3) Financial procurement

In case a UC member's parents cannot afford the necessary costs for the operation, Takazawa testified that he would procure and complement any shortage of funds (cf.45) in coordination with Atsuyoshi Ojima. The fact that they even procure the funds to abduct and confine someone else's children shows their degree of commitment.

4) Other preparations

Takazawa testified that, in case the parents had an elderly person in their home, he occasionally asked them to admit the elder in an elderly home. In some cases the parents actually complied (cf.46).

4. Execution of abduction and confinement

1) Abduction

Takazawa coined as 'custody' an action of a family bringing a UC member to a location of confinement (cf.47), acknowledging that the confined person initially tried to escape (cf.48), meaning that the abduction was done against the UC-member's will (cf.49). Also he acknowledged that most of the parents had to deceive their children when they detained their children (cf.50).

In his direct examination, Takazawa insisted that it was the UC members' parents and the kin to bring the members to the confinement site. But in his cross-examination, he admitted that he did accompany some families in detaining their children, specifying concrete reasons in two cases:

In the first case, parents failed to abduct their two daughters who were both UC members three times respectively. Subsequently, Takazawa went to abduct them.

In the second case, for fear of a miscarriage of a 3-month pregnant woman, Takazawa went to her. She was not in a stable period with high risk of abortion. Expecting her panic (cf.53) and an escape attempt (cf.54), he should have advised her relatives' refrain from the action. But he went ahead with the abduction scheme, merely because they "found her whereabouts" (cf.55), indicating his gross lack of consideration to the mother's physical health.

2) Confinement

Takazawa acknowledged that, when he confined UC-members, he applied certain apparatus on the windows to prevent their escape (cf.56). In the cross-examination, he also confirmed to have instructed the parents like "The surveillance is too lax!" or "Make the entrance lock more tight!" (cf.57) He explained about the reason, saying that the parents, getting intimate to their children, would become so loose that they might let their children escape.

In short for Takazawa, the parents should never release their children from the detention. He clarified the reason by saying, "Parents may end up being unable to talk it through with their children"(cf.58), citing a case where a parent got so sympathetic to the wailing child that he released the child (cf.59)

Once the confinement was begun, Takazawa advised the parents to communicate with him frequently (cf.60). He explained that since he could not spend much time at the confinement sites, he needed consultations with the families concerned and information of the members' conditions.

He even affirmed that he had instructed the parents to implement such rules as practiced by ordinary enterprises including reporting, contacting and consulting.(cf.61) His own testimonies already indicate how much he has manipulated the parents throughout the confinement operation.

3) Duration of confinement

Regarding the duration of confinement, he stated in the direct examination that it used to be about one week at the longest, but becomes longer lately, even for six to seven mouths (cf.62).

4) Reasons of confinement

Takazawa justified the confinement methodology as the only and last option to convert the UC followers (cf.64), advising that they should never be released until they are done (cf.65). It is thus evident that the reason of confinement was nothing but the UC members' deprogramming. Moreover, as other justifications of the method, he referred to preventing the UC people's retaking attempts of the detained members as well as allowing the detained UC members to reflect their minds and to ponder about what is truth (cf.66).

But it is because of those methods which are plain violation of the human rights that the UC people are obliged to retake its members out of the confinement. Thus, the prevention of the retaking attempts should not constitute a justification. Another justification about allowing the members to ponder about truth is nonsense, as nobody, under detention and constant pressure, would engage in dialogues with the deprogrammers or in the self search. It is so obvious that Takazawa and the like unilaterally impose certain information as truth on the UC members under detention.

5) An incident of Keiji Okamoto failing off an apartment

The incident occurred in February 1994 when a UC member, Keiji Okamoto, attempted an escape from his confinement in a 6th-floor apartment. In a scuffle with his family trying to block his escape, Okamoto fell off the floor to his near fatal injury (cf.67). According to Takazawa's testimony, Okamoto had such serious damages in his brain and lungs that he was almost hopeless to survive (cf.68).

Takazawa acknowledged Okamoto's definite aversion to being deprogrammed, confirming that Okamoto was in confinement, unable to come out of the entrance door (cf.69).

Takazawa referred to Okamoto's baptism, along with his parents', conducted after the incident and Okamoto's loss of memory, as something commendable (cf.70). It is highly unlikely that a victim, having risked his life to escape, would accept the baptism from the very hands of the culprit, Poor Okamoto, never renouncing his faith in the Unification Church. must be obliged to receive the baptism without his memory recovered. What a tragedy, far from a commendable story!

Takazawa did testify another incident in which a UC member, being deprogrammed by a different minister under detention, attempted an escape by jumping off the apartment.

Aware of these dangers, Takazawa should have refrained from the confinement method in the first place. However, he did not discontinue the practice even after the Okamoto incident. It is therefore reasonable to assume that he believed he could endanger the UC members in order to convert them by any means.

Incidentally, Takazawa tried to excuse his behaviors by claiming that he applied certain measures upon the windows to prevent such incidents (cf.72). But he should have abandoned the unlawful confinement method to avoid those tragedies. He is manipulating a totally reversed logic!

5. Forced deprogramming under detention

1) Dialogue forced with a menacing kitchen knife

Even under detention, a UC follower would hardly be converted unless Takazawa can engage in dialogue with the follower. Among those who did escape, some people testified that they were obliged to talk with him as he wielded a kitchen knife at the confinement sites.

When confronted by the UC-side lawyers, who showed the members' written statements, Takazawa admitted that he pressed for dialogue by showing the knife (cf.73). The following is a part of one of the members' statements.

When Pastor Takazawa showed up, he said to my mother, "Mom, may I have your kitchen knife?" Wielding the knife in front of me, he said, "If you believe that the Devine Principle is the truth, why won't you kill me and leave here? As you guys are risking your lives for the faith, so are we !"

Takazawa confirmed this reference as true (cf.74). According to his testimony, as this female member had not uttered a word during the preceding five-month detention, he had to demonstrate his resolve, effectively saying, "Should you have guts to kill me and leave, do it! Otherwise, let us talk!"(cf.75), her statement went on:

"This should be the last time to use the kitchen knife!", Pastor Takazawa wielded a knife which he had purchased and was bigger than the one he had borrowed from my mother. He said: "As you are committed, we, too, are very serious! I am committed to my life of faith in Jesus Christ, I can stake my life. Unless your attitude changes, I have my way of doing things! Though I shall visit you here for a while, depending on your attitude, you shall be relocated to Kobe." He said all this while wielding the knife as I kept my mouth shut.

Takazawa confirmed this portion of the statement, as well. He insisted, though, that he suggested her to "pierce me through", never intending to "threaten" her (cf.76).

For a woman after five-month confinement with no tangible way out, however, it is very natural to feel threatened if shown a knife in front her. Takazawa must have been well aware that she would feel fears. And his objective was to force her to have dialogue with him.

His remarks like, "If you believe in the Divine Principle as the truth, you kill me and leave here!" were tantamount to saying, "You cannot leave here unless you kill me!" Another remark "As you are committed, we, too, are very serious" means "I am detaining you at the cost of my life!". Given these remarks, the UC member realized that she had to submit herself to what Takazawa dictated and fell into despair. Under these circumstances, it is very natural that people like Keiji Okamoto would attempt the potentially fatal escapes.

Incidentally, Takazawa tried to defend his behavior of wielding the knife by claiming that this female member had not opened her mouth for the preceding five months. But it was his act of confinement against her free will that is illegal. Her behavior, which was a legitimate protest, was never to be blamed about.

2) Some points discussed under detention

Regarding what he talked to the UC members under detention, Takazawa testified that he had highlighted the mistakes in the Divine Principle, the official doctrine of the Unification Church, by comparing it with the biblical teachings (cf.77).

Responding to a question "What are the mistakes of the doctrines of the Unification Church?" , he specified such points as: "The Second Coming appeared in South Korea", "Rev.Sun Myung Moon is the Messiah of the Second Coming" or "The doctrines in the Principle of Restoration are apt to be illusory and exaggerating"(cf.78).

These points, however, merely indicate that the Unification teachings are not conventional and, thus, subject to the doctrinal debates but they never are the categorical or objective mistakes.

Besides, as Takazawa admitted, Rev. Moon had received an honorary doctorate by a Catholic university, while numerous religious leaders from around would took part in the International Marriage Blessing Ceremony held in May 1995. There are Christian figures who have expressed their appreciation to the Unification teachings.

Accordingly, he should not affirm that the Unification doctrines are mistakes merely because they are unconventional. As a consequence, he can hardly justify his actions of abduction and confinement to impose his unilateral viewpoints.

Incidentally, Takazawa admitted that he had never inquired with the Unification Church about what he believed the mistakes in the Unification teachings (cf.82).

3) People involved in the deprogramming

Takazawa testified that (1)he was engaged in the deprogramming activities in cooperation with Atsuyoshi Ojima and a former UC member Tokura (cf.83); (2)Takazawa and Ojima rotated their visits to the people under detention (cf.84); (3)former members converted through the deprogramming activities by Takazawa would extend their assistance by visiting the detention sites (cf.85).

4) Deprogramming of UC followers

As Takazawa testified that "Somebody would visit each and every member under detention", the scheme is designed to deprive the UC followers of mental space to calmly reflect their minds. Overwhelmed by fear and anxiety that they would never be liberated from the confinement unless they accepted the Takazawa's indoctrination, the members were bombarded with one-sided information day in and day out by Takazawa and the like, eventually losing their balanced minds.

If the members were free to contact and inquire with the Unification Church on the critiques presented by Takazawa, they would not be converted. But no such liberty was granted. As a consequence, in between the Divine Principle and Takazawa's indoctrination, the members got lost and fell into illusion that Divine Principle is wrong!

These former members who were deprogrammed came to believe falsely that they had been indoctrinated with wrong ideas, to get hostility against the Unification Church, and were obliged to help the anti-UC activities. This is how the ex-members became cooperative to the deprogramming efforts including lodging court cases like 'Return my Youth!' trials or showing up themselves in mass media to criticize the Unification Church.

5) Natures of the deprogramming activities

Takazawa wrote in 'the Christian News' (1995.1.22) as follows: "It is not owing to my particular sense of justice nor love, but foremost because the name of Christ is consecrated", "Their teachings contaminated the authentic name of Christ. This is the central reason I am involved in this issue."

At the court, he read out this portion of his article. This demonstrated that Takazawa's motivation stemmed from perception gaps with the Unification Church on the concept of the messiah.

Besides, Takazawa testified that he conducted these deprogramming activities "as part of his witnessing efforts"(cf.86), converting 60-70 percents of the former members to Christianity (cf.87). The witnessing by means of abduction and confinement can never be a legitimate practice'. It is not 'witnessing' but 'deprogramming' to impose one's faith to others.

Although Takazawa insisted that "I would never force the renunciation of faith" to the Unification members under detention (cf.88), he is evidently obliging it because: (1)He would not liberate the UC members until they quit the Unification Church (cf.89); (2)He would carefully examine the UC members' announcement of renunciation whether it is authentic or faked and would not release them unless they are judged truthful (cf.90).

Judging from these facts, Takazawa's actions are nothing but the forcible deprogramming or imposing his belief system through confinement.

6. Aborted deprogramming attempts

Takazawa cited some causes of the failed deprogramming attempts. One of the main causes was a faked departure from the Unification Church (cf.91), followed by the UC members' retaking the confined colleagues (cf.92) and the parents' releasing their children (cf.93).

Since the confinement is executed very stringently, once detained, members cannot but fake their renunciation of faith (cf.94). But having learned from the past experiences in which several members escaped from their confinement through the faked renunciation, Takazawa would ascertain from various angles whether their announcement is true or not (cf.95).

For instance, observing whether they would voluntarily disclose the whereabouts of other UC members to the ministers, he could confirm their truthfulness (cf.96).

Incidentally, among those members who were rescued safely, one person who had suggested to leave the Unification Church, quoted Takazawa as saying, "All right! But if you are lying, I shall kill you!" Takazawa did not confirm this remark.

7. Mental instability following the renunciation through confinement

Questioned whether an ex-member could return to a normal life style right after quitting the church, Takazawa testified "It is impossible!" (cf.98). His reason: the UC members, who had accepted the UC faith through the mind control, were programmed to believe that one's own, independent thinking was a sin, thus, he could not return to the society even after leaving the church.

One of the plaintiffs in the "Return my Youth" trials reported that he was unable to work at a newly-employed company and resigned, owing to the effects of the Divine Principle's thinking patterns (cf.96).

However, such claims that many UC members cannot live normal lives owing to their Divine Principle way of thinking is contradictory to the reality, as many of the church members are employed by companies and leading the ordinary social lives.

As if to complement weakness in Takazawa's claims, the plaintiff's lawyers threw a question, as a cause of the UC members' inability to lead a normal social life, whether they became mentally unstable from their self-hate or guilty conscience after realizing that their belief system was socially evil or criminal. Takazawa affirmed this (cf.100).

Suppose the ex-members became unable to lead normal social lives owing to the self-hate or guilty conscience, it was planted into their minds by Takazawa during their confinement.

Virtually imprisoned for several months up to one year in a narrow space, destabilized mentally with anxiety and fear and brainwashed with one-sided information, anyone would most likely lose the independent thinking capacity. The reason why the deprogrammed ex-members have difficulty in returning to the normal life is the very abnormal method of deprogramming through the brainwashing by means of abduction and confinement.

8. Unlawfulness of abduction and confinement

The abduction and confinement practiced by Takazawa are against the free will of the UC members, evidently constituting a crime including arrest and detention. Takazawa tried to justify his criminal activities by a variety of pretexts.

Let us examine his justifications for the abduction and confinement as follows:

1) Presence of parents

Since the parents were present at the time and site of the abduction and confinement of their children, Takazawa considers the detention as 'custody' not as 'abduction and confinement' (cf.101). However, the parents, who are by no means entitled to detain their adult children, were the culprits of arrest and confinement. His logic cannot stand valid.

Besides, it was Takazawa that agitated and directed the parents to kidnap and detain their children. He cannot justify the abduction and confinement on account of the parental presence.

It is, however, hard for the Japanese police to intervene in the prevailing acts as long as the parents are involved. Therefore, the parental presence is very favorable to those who would carry out the abduction and confinement. That is why the culprits of confinement would let the parents do the acts.

Incidentally, if Takazawa truly believed that he would not be incriminated as long as the confined members were accompanied by their parents, who injected such a legal hint to a legal amateur like Takazawa (cf.102).

2) Liberty of joining or leaving the Unification Church

Asked whether it is right to disregard freedom of an adult person and to press for the renunciation of faith, Takazawa replied that it was because an adult UC member could not enjoy freedom when the person joined the church in the first place that Takazawa dared to carry out the confinement against the person's free will (cf.103).

According to Takazawa, the reason why he claims that a UC member could not enjoy freedom in joining the church was because "they were deprived of the liberty of choice". The lawyers and former members testified that the church witnessed them without first disclosing the name of the Unification Church at video centers etc. When they became ready to accept the faith, the church's identity was revealed of (cf.104).

But one plaintiff was introduced to the Unification Church with its name identified(cf.105), so Takazawa's claim does not always apply to the real situations.

In fact, at some video centers run by the UC members, such witnessing methods as claimed by Takazawa were practiced. However, the video centers by no means confined the audience, leaving totally to the discretion of people whether to attend or not.

Moreover, the Unification Church was introduced only to those attendants who became interested in the Divine Principle through viewing the videos. Besides, whether they would join the church or not was entirely left to their free choice. Accordingly, it is contrary to the fact that they did not have liberty of choice when they joined the church.

Takazawa further insisted that the UC members could not enjoy liberty of quitting the church because they were menaced with possible curses or ominous consequences. But as Takazawa acknowledged, among those who joined the Unification Church, there were many highly-educated students (cf.106) and women from 35 to 50 years of age. The highly-educated students and the middle-aged women cannot be pressured easily with such menacing elements. They hold firm faith after confirming its dogmas and activities by their own minds.

In contrast, in the abduction and confinement carried out by Takazawa, the UC members were not released for as long as six months to one year until they left the church. These are the very acts depriving the members of their free will.

3) Mind Control

In his direct examination, Takazawa stated that the mind-controlled UC members cannot voluntarily leave the church (cf.109). He also said that those members who have acquired strong faith cannot quit the church by their autonomy, in other words, without going through the deprogramming operation. Furthermore, having joined the church, they can hardly retreat from the faith (cf.110).

But in a subsequent cross examination, he admitted that there were UC members who had left the church by their autonomy, acknowledging that they could quit the church without being persuaded through confinement (cf.111). After all, the mind control theory does not have a scientific basis.

During the direct examination, Takazawa referred, as his justification of "the rescue operation", to the destructive effects upon the future of young people (cf.112). But considering various facts including a member falling off a 6th-floor apartment during the confinement or some members unable to lead the normal social lives after the confinement, it is Takazawa and the like that caused irrecoverably serious damages on the future of the youth.

9. Nationwide organizations

1) Other Christian ministers involved in the deprogramming activities

Takazawa testified that some Christian ministers such as Makoto Sugimoto, Hisoka Murakami and Takeo Funada have converted the UC members at similarly high success rates to his own (cf.113).

He also acknowledged that the ministers had begun the nationwide deprogramming activities on the UC members through abduction and confinement since 10 years before (cf.114). He claimed that their engagement was spontaneous and not in coordination with one another (cf.115). He also testified that though there had been no nationwide organization dedicated to the deprogramming of the UC members, now there is a national structure (cf.116).

2) National Council on Spiritual Sales (NCSS)

According to Takazawa, the National Council on Spiritual Sales (NCSS) is an association of Christian ministers of diverse affiliations who are interested in devising countermeasures to the Unification Church. It holds meetings basically twice a year or more, if necessary, to exchange relevant information (cf.117).

The participating organizations include more than a dozen Christian associations such as the United Church of Christ in Japan, Japan Union Christian Church, the Holiness Church, the Assembly of God as well as the Tenrikyo, a Shinto association (cf.118). It has no specific conditions on its membership (cf.119), which reached about 40 member organizations.

Their meetings are normally attended by 20 or so people (cf.120), held in a hotel room. In Tokyo, it may take place at the United Church of Christ in Japan, Nishi Shinjuku Church (cf.121).

In the meetings they would discuss variety of issues including "How to block the escape in disguise"(cf.122), meaning a faked departure from the Unification Church. This indicates that they would not release the UC members until they renounce their UC faith. In short, their meetings are devoted to discussing on the confinement of the UC members.

Some of the frequent attendants were: Takashi Miyamura (a company owner), Makoto Sugimoto (a minister, UCCJ), Yoshio Shimizu (a minister, UCCJ), Matsunaga (Japan Union Christian Church, a minister) and Atsuyoshi Ojima (cf.123). All of them are known by the Unification Church insiders as professional deprogrammers or ministers specialized in deprogramming.

3) National Network of Lawyer against the Spiritual Sales (NNL)

National Network of Lawyer against the Spiritual Sales (NNL) is primarily composed of left-leaning lawyers associated either the Communist Party or the Socialist Party. Takazawa acknowledged to have connections with NNL' lawyers like Yoshii, Takeshima and Matsumoto; all of them acted on behalf of the plaintiffs in various court cases; Takazawa himself attended in some of their meetings (cf.124).

Takazawa testified that NCSS meetings were occasionally coincided one day prior to the NNL' meetings held at the same venue (cf.125). This apparently facilitated the NCSS' participants to attend in the NNL meetings.

Thus, it is reasonably assumed that the NCSS attendants joined the NNL assemblies, as well. As they may be exchanging information, the legal experts could also be involved in plotting the abduction and confinement.

4) Collaboration in court battles

In many cases, we have noticed, the ex-members who had been abducted, confined and brainwashed by the NLCC people, turned out to act as plaintiffs or witnesses in the court cases against the Unification Church. What was known as "Return my Youth" trials in Kobe were very cases in point.

Obediently following the ministers, the ex-members came to demand such absurd claims as "wages" for their service activities even though they had joined the church out of their free will. The statements or testimonies of the former UC members proved to be very one-sided, motivated by the hostility planted during their confinement against the value system represented by the Unification Church. They were indeed plaintiffs and witnesses fabricated for the sake of the court battles.

10. Some statements tantamount to perjury

Even though Pastor Takazawa assumes a profession by calling, thus supposed to lead people towards goodness, he conspicuously changed his own words, making squarely opposite testimonies between the direct examination and the cross-examination, even making evidently false testimonies.

He read out loudly, and signed on, the court oath: "I shall swear that, following my conscience, I will speak the truth without hindrance nor addition". Therefore, his testimonial attitude was contradictory to his Christian identity. It is indeed mind-boggling to know that as many as 200 UC members have been deprogrammed by such people's persuasion.

11. Takazawa's determination to continue

Glorifying and gratifying his deprogramming activities through confining the UC members (cf.126), Pastor Takazawa expressed his determination to continue such acts (cf.127).

We must stop once and for all these evil, unilateral and illegal behaviors which employ brutal means like kidnapping and detention, thus exposing those who have different faith to ultimate dangers.

References from the pretrial investigations

The following four sets of the records from Pastor Takazawa's pretrial investigations are quoted in this paper:

A: the first investigation report dated January 23rd 1996
B: the second investigation report dated March 26th 1996
C: the third investigation report dated May 21st 1996
D: the fourth investigation report dated July 9th 1996

(Cf.1) A- page 1-4, Pastor Takazawa's biographical outline compiled by himself
(Cf.2) A-page 11-13
(Cf.3) C-page 3
(Cf.4) A-page 14
(Cf.5) C-page 21 line 11- page 22 line 13
(Cf.6) A-page 15
(Cf.7) A-page 16
(Cf.8) A-page 21 line 3-5
(Cf.9) C-page 33 line 13 - page 34 line 4
(Cf.10) B-page 49 line 7- page 51 line 8
(Cf.11) A-page 59 line 6 - page 60 line 8
(Cf.12) D-page 28 line 12, page 29, page 30 line 13
(Cf.13) A-page 19 line 13 - page 20 line 5, C-page 30 line 2-3
(Cf.14) C-page 28 line 10 - page 30 line 3
(Cf.15) C-page 31 line 3-7
(Cf.16) C-page 69 line5-7
(Cf.17) C-page 69 line 8-11
(Cf.18) C-page 72 line 2-8
(Cf.19) D-page 23 line 12 - page 24 line 13
(Cf.20) A-page 68 line 1-4
(Cf.21) C-page 36 line 2
(Cf.22) C-page 36 line 5 - page 37 line 7
(Cf.23) C-page 37 line 8-10
(Cf.24) C-page 63 line 7-13
(Cf.25) C-page 65 line 10-11
(Cf.26) C-page 65 line 12 - page 66 line 4
(Cf.27) C-page 65 line 12 - page 66 line 6
(Cf.28) C-page 64 line 1-5
(Cf.29) C-page 66 line 7-13
(Cf.30) C-page 67 line 1-7
(Cf.31) C-page 65 line 8-9
(Cf.32) C-page 67 line 13 - page 68 line 3
(Cf.33) C-page 73 line 5 - page 74 line 5
(Cf.34) B-page 51 line 12 - page 52 line 5
(Cf.35) B-page 52 line 6-7
(Cf.36) C-page 71 line 3-6
(Cf.37) D-page 31 line 1 - page 33 line 9
(Cf.38) C-page 71 line 7 - page 72 line 1
(Cf.39) C-page 74 line 6-9
(Cf.40) C-page 75 line 5-12
(Cf.41) D-page 39 line 12 - page 40 line 2
(Cf.42) D-page 40 line 4-10
(Cf.43) C-page 74 line 10 - page 75 line 4
(Cf.44) D-page 42 line 1-4
(Cf.45) D-page 48 line 4-9
(Cf.46) C-page 72 line 2-8
(Cf.47) A-page 50 line 4
(Cf.48) C-page 35 line 3-4
(Cf.49) C-page 46 line 11 - page 47 line 9
(Cf.50) C-page 48 line 8 - page 49 line 5
(Cf.51) D-page 35 line 10-12
(Cf.52) D-page 35 line 13 - page 38 line 1
(Cf.53) C-page 47 line 10-12
(Cf.54) C-page 35 line 3-4
(Cf.55) D-page 37 line 9-10
(Cf.56) A-page 52 line 13 - page 53 line 7
(Cf.57) D-page 38 line 12 - page 39 line 7
(Cf.58) C-page 29 line 5-7
(Cf.59) C-page 29 line 10 - page 30 line 5
(Cf.60) C-page 75 line 13 - page 76 line 8
(Cf.61) C-page 76 line 9 - page 77 line 8
(Cf.62) A-page 61 line 7-13
(Cf.63) B-page 54 line 4-7
(Cf.64) D-page 28 line 12 - page 29 line 2
(Cf.65) C-page 31 line 3-7
(Cf.66) B-page 52 line 10 - page 53 line 6
(Cf.67) C-page 50 line 10 - page 51 line 7
(Cf.68) A-page 38 line 7-13
(Cf.69) C-page 51 line 8-13
(Cf.70) A-page 40 - 42
(Cf.71) A-page 53 line 12 - page 54 line 3
(Cf.72) A-page 54 line 4-6
(Cf.73) D-page 14 line 11 - page 25 line 12
(Cf.74) D-page 18 line 1 - page 19 line 1
(Cf.75) D-page 16 line 10 - 17
(Cf.76) D-page 19 line 2 - page 20 line 1
(Cf.77) B-page 34 line 10 - page 35 line 2
(Cf.78) D-page 6 line 2 - page 7 line 4
(Cf.79) D- page 7 line 4
(Cf.80) C-page 58 line 12 - page 59 line 6
(Cf.81) C-page 60 line 4-8
(Cf.82) C-page 58 line 3-6
(Cf.83) D-page 42 line 5 - page 43 line 7
(Cf.84) B-page 54 line 8 - 12
(Cf.85) A-page 47 line 2-4
(Cf.86) A-page 24 line 9-10
(Cf.87) A-page 21 line 3-5
(Cf.88) D-page 4 line 2-6
(Cf.89) C-page 31 line 3-7
(Cf.90) C-page 31 line 3-7
(Cf.91) A-page 17 line 13 - page 18 line 3
(Cf.92) A-page 19
(Cf.93) A-page 19 line 13 - page 20 line 5
(Cf.94) C-page 15 line 9-13
(Cf.95) D-page 13 line 4-10
(Cf.96) C-page 26 line 2 - page 28 line 1
(Cf.97) D-page 13 line 11 - page 14 line 10
(Cf.98) B-page 54 line 13-55
(Cf.99) B-page 55 line 4-13
(Cf.100) B-page 57 line 9 - page 59 line 5
(Cf.101) B-page 81 line 2-11
(Cf.102) C-page 37 line 3
(Cf.103) C-page 18 line 2 - page 19 line 4
(Cf.104) B-page 21 line 3-7AC-page 19 line 6 - page 20 line 2
(Cf.105) B-page 70 line 1-5
(Cf.106) B-page 4 line 1-4
(Cf.107) B-page 2 line 1-5
(Cf.108) C-page 21 line 11 - page 23 line 2
(Cf.109) B-page 49 line 1-3
(Cf.110) B-page 82 line 5-12
(Cf.111) C-page 21 line 11 - page 23 line 2
(Cf.112) B-page 87 line 2-9
(Cf.113) A-page 16 line 10 - page 17 line 4
(Cf.114) C-page 25
(Cf.115) C-page 25 line 1-4
(Cf.116) C-page 11 line 11-13
(Cf.117) A-page 7 line 2-9
(Cf.118) D-page 51 line 7 - page 52 line 11
(Cf.119) D-page 52 line 12-13
(Cf.120) D-page 53 line 7-12
(Cf.121) D-page 56 line 1-4
(Cf.122) D-page 55 line 6-12
(Cf.123) D-page 56 line 8 - page 58 line 4
(Cf.124) D-page 58 line 5-11
(Cf.125) D-page 53 line 3-6
(Cf.126) B-page 87 line 10-12
(Cf.127) B-page 88 line 9-11

Japan Victims' Association against Religious Kidnapping & Forced Conversion